June 2004 Newsletter
Standing on The Shoulders of Giants: An Invitation to the IPv6 Summit in Santa Monica

Excitement is building for the IPv6 Summit in Santa Monica, even from professionals who have a well developed sense of emotional objectivity and don't excite easily. Signs of uptake are all around this Summit: more corporate, nonprofit, and media sponsors than ever (in the history of IPv6 events), our conference hotel - the Loews - sold out, exhibits area completely filled, and registrations from all over the world. As Conference Chairman, it's my job to make sure that all attendees get tremendous value from the presentations they see and hear, and the relationships they make, and I'm very confident that this IPv6 Summit will deliver.
There are several reasons to attend, or, if you are already registered, to encourage you to send your recommendation urging everyone you like who works with the Internet to join you at the IPv6 Summit. Here are mine. Please send me your reasons if I've missed any.
Speak with Internet Geniuses, Visionaries and Giants
There will be over 50 speakers, all of them knowledgeable, many of them highly influential, and some of them giants in the success of the Internet, which now reachs over 800 million people, including Vint Cerf, Larry Roberts, and Larry Smarr. As Sir Isaac Newton said, "If I've have seen a little farther than others, it's because I stood on the shoulders of giants." I know most of the speakers, some of them very well, and can say that they are some of the finest people I've ever met, and, for those who want to build on the encounter, meeting some of these leaders can offer possibly life changing opportunities. After meeting Larry Smarr (whose lab unleashed what became the standards for both web server and browser) at a conference I have, based on Prof. Smarr's introductions, met over 100 other people, attended leading national and international conferences, and written a dozen articles . Meeting Latif Ladid was similarly momentous and life changing, and led to my organizing four IPv6 events, almost 1,500 attendees in aggregate, in the last year, and introductions to great people in Japan, China, Europe, India, and Australia. If you attend and introduce yourself and avoid the temptation to bury your head in email sand, you will meet hundreds of people at the IPv6 Summit. (Get a head start by reading all the 6Sense articles, because all the authors will be in attendance, and you'll have something to discuss). If you follow up, you will make dozens of new friends who all have in common a passion for the future Internet, and your life and work will be enriched. Note that the CharmBadges, part of a broad class of "wearable computers capable of intelligently responding to surroundings" that I recently receive a US patent for, will help to automatically generate an e-list of all the people and companies you come face to face with at the summit, without needing to gather business cards or type them in. Follow up has never been so easy with new friends!
Profit from New Customers, Partners, and Coalition Partners
During the course of just a few hours (at the cocktail reception, two lunches, and after my talk) at the Beijing IPv6 Summit I was able to connect with executives and sell sponsorships to NTT/Verio, Intel, Foundry, Agilent, and the IPv6 Promotion Council of Japan, a value of about $60,000 now (and potentially multiples of this later) for the $2,000 cost of my trip. You have the potential to make an equally good ROI for yourself and your company. Though there are more people at the Beijing IPv6 Summit, there are more IPv6 related decision makers with budgets at the US IPv6 Summits than anywhere with the possible exception of Japan. We sell out sponsorships each time because people in the US are very focused on using IPv6 for business advantage and getting a good Return On Investment, and because executives in government can get measurable improvements in their Mission Effectiveness Factors. IPv6 will impact billions, then trillions, of dollars of business every year, and you can't have too many allies. If we've learned anything from Iraq, it's that everyone, even the US, needs Coalition Partners, and the best place to start the process of getting them related to the future Internet is to meet and start doing business or projects together at the IPv6 Summit. Again, the CharmBadge will help everyone keep track of all the people (and only those people) that they've met face to face and exhibits visited, facilitating partnership follow up in minutes, vs. the average 45 day delay from a conference booth visit.
Get Your Word on IPv6 to the World
Our IPv6 Summit PR director, Joya Subhudi, in addition to being a very nice person, has done an outstanding job getting the top Internet and networking publications to be media sponsors, which is basically a zero dollar exchange of messaging that lets us get the word out from the news makers to the people most interested in hearing what's happening with the Internet. By attending the summit you greatly increase your chances, if you have something to say, of getting your word out to the world. It's been a year, as of June 13, since John Stenbit, then CIO of the Dept. of Defense, announced that the DoD would be mandating IPv6. This summit, honored by the presence of dozens of journalists all up to speed on IPv6 is the best place to get the word out. The same is true for your company or agency's work with IPv6. I have been in the media over 1,000 times, generating over $100 million worth of advertising in publicity, because I go where the press is, and I make sure I give them an interesting story. Joya has invited the best press for you to tell your story. Will you rise to the occasion?
Fill Your Mind with an MIT semester worth of education at 3% of the cost
We have four full days of content at this summit. As an MIT graduate, I can confirm that there is about as much to learn from this summit, especially if you review the PowerPoints or videos afterwards, ask questions of the speakers, and discuss key points with colleagues, as from a full semester of MIT engineering courses. However, the IPv6 summit costs about $500, while a semester at MIT costs about $15,000.
Help Bring IPv6 to the US, its Coalition Partners, and the World
We get asked by very powerful people how many people attended these summits, what organizations they represent, and what the changes are from IPv6 summit to summit. We can confirm that, simply by showing up, you actually help IPv6 to grow, to evolve, to get investment, to have Requests For Proposals be written, and hundreds of other projects. We honor and appreciate Vint Cerf, for instance, for being one of the people who made the Internet happen, and know that it would not have happened the same way without his personal involvement. IPv6 is still to be shaped, and, by showing up, you increase the odds that IPv6 will succeed, and you amplify your chances of making a personal impact on IPv6.
You are Invited to Attend, and to Invite Others
In case you need an invitation, you are hereby invited. Please come! Even if you've attended before, there will be new information. For instance, NTT/Verio will describe what they've learned from having over a thousand IPv6 enabled routers. You've never heard this talk before because they've never said it before, and no one else duplicates this magnitude, nor this same learning curve. The same is true for other talks. Even if you don't want to hear all the talks, you can spend hours in the exhibits area and get a sense of the state of the v6 art, and talk with people in one of the dozens of comfortable conversation nooks, some with inspiring views of the beach and the historic Santa Monica Pier (featured in dozens of movies and television shows, including the upcoming Cellular).
A final reason to come is to have a good time and kick off the summer. Some attendees are making a family trip out of their summit visit, flying their spouses and kids in on Thursday night (June 17) after the summit to see the amusement parks less than an hour away for a three day weekend starting Friday, including Universal Studios, Disneyland, Magic Mountain, Knott's Berry Farm, and local sights like the world famous Venice Boardwalk (20 minute walk south on the beach path), the Santa Monica Third Street Promenade (5 minutes walk north), and Palisades Park, probably the most beautiful and thinnest urban park in the world, along two miles of cliff just a block north of the Loews hotel.
Thanks for thinking about the IPv6 Summit. Please feel free to introduce yourself while you are at the summit.
In This Third Issue of 6Sense
Now, onto the articles. We are very honored to have Internet giant Larry Roberts writing in this issue on a little know advantage of IPv6; business articles from the business directors of IPv6 organizations in the US and Japan; and technology insights from leading practitioners in the US and Canada. My article from VOX, the newsletter of the Los Angeles Regional Technology Alliance is reprinted, in the hope of inspiring metropolitan areas to stop trying to be the next Silicon Valley, and to start trying to be the new IPv6 regional cluster. There are also additional resources, including free subscriptions to highly credible magazines and seminars to drill down deeper into other aspects of IPv6. We highly recommend our IPv6 Summit sponsors and media partners as the best in the business, and wish you great success with IPv6.

Winning A Place in the New Multi-Trillion Dollar Market

With the communications, consumer product and entertainment industries now on a collision course we have the making of a “perfect storm” of opportunity that will create new winners while eliminating incumbents on a worldwide scale. The globalization of the service provider business, the increasing connectivity of consumer appliances and the growth of on-line media is creating the foundations for a new integrated multi-trillion dollar industry.
This metamorphosis is also creating new connectivity requirements as these industries must now enable the acquisition, sharing and distribution of content on an unprecedented scale. To help the players of this game there is IPv6 – a technology designed to enable ad hoc, secure connectivity of mobile devices on a global scale. To help understand the pivotal role of IPv6 will play in enabling this new multi-trillion dollar market let’s briefly look at the business drivers of each industry and the connectivity requirements for success – and perhaps we can even find a place for ourselves along the way.
In the service provider market we see a move towards brand expansion with respect to geographic coverage and service portfolio. Footprint in the physical and virtual domains is the benchmark that investors look at when evaluating who will get their financial backing. Thus the business challenge for service providers is how to aggregate subscribers who have been acquired through merger, acquisition or partnership across multiple networks. Service providers need to manage subscribers irrespective of the underlying technology (GSM, cable, DSL, dial, etc) or device type (PC, PDA, DTV, etc) and this where v6 comes in. By enabling a common subscriber service architecture across mixed access networks IPv6 allows service providers to aggregate their subscriber population on a global basis. The higher the level of subscriber aggregation, the more bargaining power service providers have with infrastructure and on-line media companies and the greater the profit potential for themselves.
In the consumer product market we see a growing demand for devices that support a mix of entertainment, e-commerce and enterprise applications. Consumers now expect to listen to music, buy songs on-line and receive email while talking on a phone (if you can still call it that). While improvements in CPU, memory and battery assist, being able to dynamically connect to adjacent devices while linking to remote services is critical – and this is where IPv6 comes in. IPv6’s ability to support ad hoc connectivity (without the need of a host) while simultaneously supporting WAN communications with one protocol is a major breakthrough. Moreover, IPv6s ability to permit persistent personal networks also enables new types of consumer products and services that were previously unfeasible. For example one could create a service that enables mobile subscribers to access premium content on their home DVR while traveling or instantly deliver footage from one’s video camera to digital picture frames as they are being taken – the possibilities new product design are endless when local and global connectivity is embedded.
In the world of on-line media, as content owners and game developers seek to market their properties globally the ability to identify users and their devices is critical. Unlike the existing concept of selling a CD, content owners need to allow users to share content across their personal devices without risk of re-broadcast. For content owners IPv6’s ability to uniquely identify users and securely deliver encrypted content is critical for content management and distribution. For multiplayer gaming, users expect to play against opponents on the other side of world as well as across the table (or both). And here we see the ability of IPv6 to enable ad hoc communities over distributed computing architectures as a powerful tool for game developers interested in creating the ultimate shared experience.
While predicting the outcome of new markets is hard, IPv6’s role as a foundational building block in the networked media world is certain. By acting as the binding agent between consumers and their content, IPv6 is the glue that will facilitate the up-and-coming mobile entertainment/e-commence/enterprise communications revolution. With two billion consumers on-line and more coming, tomorrow's winners will be those who recognize the new landscape and leverage communications technology to win a seat in the emerging multi-trillion dollar market. Where will your place at the table be?

Is Best Effort IP Really Economic?

Shortly after I started the ARPANET in 1969 a religion somehow was created that "best effort" packet routing is the most economic way to forward data in the Internet. This was based on the concept that keeping any state information in the routers would somehow make them more expensive or un-scaleable. In 1969 this was true, memory was so expensive that it would have been foolish to keep any state information about a flow (a flow is the sequence of packets that forms a call or individual connection, all going between the same two processes). In 1969 the memory to keep state information for all the flows in the highest speed port would have increased the cost of the port by a factor of ten. Today, in 2004, although the port speed has increased from 50 Kb to 10 Gbps and the number of flows on a port has increased from 100 to 2M, the memory cost has decreased sufficiently faster than the port cost that the memory to keep all the flow state information is now only 0.6% of the port cost. Thus, it now is worthwhile to examine what benefit keeping this state information would achieve. The graph below shows that the cost of flow state memory became economic in the late 1990's.
Flow state allows one to track and control the rate of a flow. Router control of TCP flows has been based on the assumption that rate information was not available in the router and therefore random discards based on queue length (RED or WRED) have been the best technique available. This typically permits at most 40% port utilization to insure low packet delays. However, given rate information on each flow and measurement of the total port utilization, TCP flows can be rate controlled by the router to just fill each port to 80% and not ever build up queuing delay. This can be done by discarding packets, as is the practice with slow-start today, or it could be achieved with rate feedback to the TCP process so that no packets would need to be discarded. Once a series of routers in the flow path can negotiate and return the rate they can support a TCP flow, slow-start can be bypassed and the sender could jump to the full maximum rate the network can support without congestion. Whenever congestion in the network changes, the rate can be adjusted, thereby allowing the network to rapidly adjust to varying load without having to confuse the sender with discards due to congestion and discards due to transmission errors.
This rate feedback concept has been introduced into IPv6 in an in-band QoS option field that negotiates the TCP rate across the network and returns it to the sender. Each router can adjust the rate to whatever rate it can support without congestion. When the sender's TCP process receives the rate feedback, it can immediately jump to the agreed rate. From time to time the network may return a different rate, but the sender never needs to slow down due to lost packets and only needs to retransmit those packets truly lost due to transmission failures. Thus, in one round trip time (.1 to .5 seconds) TCP can start sending at very high rates and thus send a 1 MB web page in less than one second rather than the ten seconds typically required today for pages 1/10 the size. The 10:1 improvement in WWW access time could dramatically improve productivity. Also, this technique works well even when the round trip delay is long as in overseas access or satellite use.
The reason this in-band option is possible with IPv6 and not with IPv4, is that IPv6 protocol has a flow label that identifies the flow even when the packet is encrypted and also IPv6 requires each router to act on hop-by-hop options like the QoS option. Thus, as the QoS request progresses across the network, each router can adjust the TCP rate to whatever rate it can support. This option processing is normally feasible in IPv4 and given the important addition of encryption security, even the flow cannot be identified without the flow label. The benefit of controlling the flow rates not only allows ten times faster TCP operation, but it also permits the routers to achieve 80% utilization of the routers and the trunks. This is because the combined rate of all flows is known and the port utilization measured, thereby allowing much greater control of the accepted load. This 100% increase in utilization results from the addition of the additional 0.6% cost for the flow state memory, thereby clearly exploding the old religion that flow state would increase cost or not scale. On the contrary, it reduces cost by 60% and permits full in-band QoS specification including guaranteed rate flows, precedence, delay priority and TCP rate feedback.
The end result is that IPv6 with this new QoS option reduces the cost of IP by at least 2:1, decreases the time for WWW page access by 10:1, allows no-loss video and voice guaranteed rate flows at any speed, supports emergency services like 911 through precedence, and virtually eliminates packet loss in the network even for TCP. All this is achieved without the routers needing to (or being able to due to encryption) peer into levels 4-7 to make a poor guess about the QoS desired. Thus the actual processing and cost required for good QoS is actually less with IPv6 than IPv4 and the result is far superior.

IPv6 in Europe: From R&D to Deployment

1. IPv6 in the European Commission R&D Activities
In January 2000, the European Commission (EC) Information Society Technologies Programme (IST), funded the first attempt to validate the introduction of IPv6 technology in Europe, the 6INIT project.
Since then, a number of IPv6 research and development projects have been funded, representing a huge investment on behalf of the EC and the project partners, totalizing over €180M in about 40 projects.
These projects include a broad scope of activities, some of them with a strong emphasis on IPv6 "per se," with the main goal being the research and development related to the protocol itself, while others just use IPv6 as part of their broader goals.

2. Research Topics
The projects address a broad range of research and development topics, including:
Multicast, QoS and DiffServ in relation to active networks technology (GCAP).
Wireless Internet environments with QoS awareness (WINE).
Wireless access and IP mobility with GPRS, and 3GPP/UMTS (6WINIT).
Satellite broadband access (SATIP6).
UMTS enhancements (OverDRiVE).
Broadband access using Power Line Technology with QoS and multicast (6POWER).
IPv6 QoS measurement (6QM).
Multi-hop heterogeneous wireless IPv6 networks (6HOP).
In addition, two very large scale experimentation platforms (Euro6IX and 6NET) are investigating the actual deployment of IPv6. Their goal is the broad deployment of IPv6 in Europe, building dedicated native IPv6 networks involving national research and education networks, telcos, and ISPs in a complementary approach, and considering other aspects like applications and Internet exchanges.

3. IPv6 is about Global Collaboration
All the IPv6-related projects have collaborated within the framework of the IPv6 Cluster since June, 2001. A specific project, 6LINK, supports the activity of the IPv6 Cluster, which resulted in a very interesting platform that fosters inter-project cooperation -- and the dissemination became a kind of open window towards the rest of the world.
The Eurov6 project also fostered showcases for demonstrating using IPv6 products and services and their impact on "anyone, anytime," by means of fixed and nomadic showrooms.
The political dimension is addressed by the IPv6 Task Force Steering Committee (IPv6 TF-SC), whose main goals are discovering and filling any existing gaps, to provide strategic guidance with the assistance of a number of industry and academic players, to quickly propose measures to appropriate bodies, to coordinate with the European Commission, and to validate various long-term projects and the implementation of proposed measures towards the global deployment of IPv6.
IPv6 involves a great deal of global cooperation. IPv6 will not happen only in Europe or only in Japan. Three major projects have achieved very relevant results that included a tight liaison with similar international initiatives, generating strong industry and government awareness globally for IPv6.

4. The European IPv6 Task Force
The European Commission started an IPv6 Task Force with key European and worldwide players, to develop a comprehensive action plan by the end of 2001 for accelerating the availability of IPv6.
The conclusions and recommendations of the Task Force were successfully submitted to the European Council Spring Meeting of 2002, under the Spanish presidency (Barcelona), and in the context of this document, a series of recommendations pertaining to the implementation of IPv6 by all relevant ICT sectors were proposed by the Commission.
As a result, the Heads of State resolution was to prioritize the widespread availability and use of broadband networks throughout the Union by 2005, and the deployment of the new Internet protocol, IPv6, as part of the e-Europe 2005 initiative.
One of the main achievements was a communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament called, Next Generation Internet - priorities for action in migrating to the new Internet protocol IPv6.
In a complementary action, the European Commission called for the renewal of the mandate of the IPv6 Task Force as a platform for debate on critical issues concerning IPv6 deployment.
As a consequence, the IPv6 TF-SC project is to be the main strategic instrument for fostering the deployment of IPv6 technology in Europe. In addition, the project has collaborated with other regional groups and initiatives deploying IPv6, and fostered a number of similar initiatives, including national IPv6 Task Forces in more than 25 countries around the world, with a similar number under formation (http://www.ipv6tf.org).
The Task Force is about to enter the third and last phase, which will facilitate the take-off of IPv6 in a great many industrial and business sectors, with a resulting large-scale deployment. IPv6 will be adopted to create new and better products, new services, new applications, and entire new businesses. We will enjoy features that still can't be fully imagined, that will facilitate the next generation of the "Information Society": the "Knowledge Society".
Only IPv6 can enable the vision of an intelligent networked environment, that supports not just information but knowledge, and assures us that we can make the best usage of all available resources, anytime, anywhere.

5. From Research and Development to Deployment
Most of the EU IPv6 projects and initiatives are already completed or about to finish, and they have already produced very interesting and impressive results.

It is clear that all the R&D investments have a universal target: ROI. IPv6 can deliver on this, and not just in Europe.
For example, GÉANT, the network that interconnects all the National Research and Education Networks across Europe and with the rest of the world, at gigabit speeds, has activated IPv6 much earlier than originally planned, due to the expertise acquired through project results, mainly in 6NET.
Similarly, thanks to the experience acquired by the Euro6IX partners in the last months, some of the ISPs/Telcos in the project have already announced commercial services, and it is expected that before the projects end, most of these companies will also be able to initiate service.
IPv6 is also of key importance for the "Broadband for ALL" EU initiative. New competing access technologies like Power Line Communications (PLC), at speeds of up to 200 Mbps., have been demonstrated in 6POWER, with features such as QoS, multicast, digital set-top-boxes and VoIPv6 which have already become commercial services. How else can we imagine, if not with IPv6, the availability and usage of multi-megabit speeds throughout the home? We need many new applications that demand more bandwidth, but only with IPv6 can information flow between devices, consumer electronics, and appliances, instead of just between computers: "Smart devices for a smart world".
In a recent event in Brussels named "Global IPv6 Service Launch", it was demonstrated that IPv6 deployment is already here, with global coverage already offered by IPv6-enabled networks. There is no excuse for being isolated from this major trend!
Today IPv6 is no longer about basic research. Instead, it is a major portal for very creative and powerful innovation, and a way to add value to your existing products, services and applications. Not getting on board right now means missing the time window of this opportunity. Catch the IPv6 fast train!

Internet Leadership: Another Opportunity for Southern California

There have only been about 60 million Californians, compared to over 60 billion humans. Californians thus represent only about 1 in every 1,000 humans that have ever lived, yet California dreaming has been the source of some the most imaginative products and services in history. Arguments could be made for which of these brainstorms was the most useful, but there is a strong case for packet switched networks (conceived by Paul Baran of Santa Monica’s RAND), which largely contributed to the creation of the Internet.
This is one of LA’s two major claims to be the inventors of the Internet, the other deriving from when Len Kleinrock helped set up the first node of the Internet in 1968, linking Kleinrock’s UCLA (where he is still affiliated to this very day) with UCSB, Stanford Research Institute and the University of Utah (where computer graphics, later to transform Hollywood, was being contemporaneously invented by Ivan Sutherland).
The advent of Internet Protocol version 6 offers an opportunity again for Southern California to lead. IPv6 is very far along – the specifications have existed for nearly ten years, router companies like Cisco, Hewlett-Packard and NEC include IPv6, and most of the latest versions of popular operating systems (including Windows XP, Linux, OS X, Palm 6.0, and EPOC) support IPv6 in some fashion. However, there are almost no applications, no content, and no big success stories. The omens are good – very good, in fact – for Southern Californians, and LA innovators in particular, to become leaders, and capitalize on the imagination of others to generate hundreds of new systems, networks, services and empires based on IPv6, the New Internet.
Details of IPv6 could fill a book (in fact, as an Amazon search will indicate, 15 books), but the basic features are as follows:
IPv6 is the successor protocol to IPv4 (now 31 years old this June – versions 1, 2, 3, and 5 didn’t get out of the lab).
IPv6 uses a hexadecimal system (some letters, not just numbers).
IPv6 has better support for mobility.
IPv6 has mandatory security built in (versus optional and fragmented).
IPv6 has stateless autoconfiguration - roughly comparable to USB’s “plug and play”.
IPv6 has bigger packets called Jumbograms (up to 4 Gigabytes vs. IPv4’s 64 Kilobytes/packet).
IPv6 has the ability to chain headers (like ability to slap labels on a FedEx package).
IPv6 has 3.4 x 10 to the 38th addresses available (versus. 250 million remaining for IPv4 - not enough even for America’s mobile phone users, since 2 IP addresses are needed for each device.
IPv6 has a field for Flow Control, which can now allow Quality of Service.
IPv6 marks the return of the End-to-End principal of the Internet, compared to going through firewalls and using private addresses that fracture the Internet, like roadblocks or millions of gated communities instead of streets that allow transit.
The net effect of all these features of IPv6 is to enable a whole new ballgame for the Internet, one that Southern California is better positioned to achieve. Michael Porter’s 700 page The Competitive Advantage of Nations hammers home the point that national competitive advantage is based on regional clusters of excellent companies that are so good at competing with (and hiring from and cooperating with) their neighbors that they blow away the rest of the world when they meet head to head.
Southern California has several advantages, including Hollywood as the home of nearly 500,000 entertainment industry workers, including 100,000 in the movie and video industry alone. IPv6 efficiencies for configuration (plug and ping), Jumbograms (which can encapsulate multiple seconds of 24 frame/second high definition video per packet), and End-to-End can make improvements. There are also advantages for computer gaming, especially as Massively Multiplayer Online games continue to proliferate. The mobility features will be very useful for automobile safety, fleet management, and, of course, mobile phone users and content producers. San Diego, the self-proclaimed wireless capital of the world based on Qualcomm’s leadership in CDMA, could become the 4G capital if its cluster woke up to the possibilities and advantage of IPv6. There are also regional Internet leaders, such as ICANN (which effectively governs the Internet from Marina Del Rey), CENIC (broadband connections between 8,000 campuses), and Cal-(IT)2 (the $500 million Internet-centric research institute jointly operated by UCSD and UCI), as well as USC’s ISI (which did the IPv6 implementation for Microsoft Windows XP) and USC's Institute for Creative Technologies.
Perhaps the biggest advantage of Southern California is its close connection with the Department of Defense. DoD CIO John Stenbit (also from Los Angeles) mandated a transition to IPv6 by the entire DoD by 2008. The DoD has an annual IT budget of $25 billion. Dept. of Homeland Security (DHS) is also planning to require IPv6, and with DoD accounts for over half the federal IT budget. LA companies are well positioned to get contracts related to IPv6 because LA not only has the expertise, but is also a target for terrorists, and needs all the mobile, secure, ad hoc networking help it can get.
Southern California’s final advantage is that the IPv6 summits take place here, bringing the best experts in the world to the area and allowing for brainstorming and networking and entrepreneurial alliance forming that could form the basis for a regional IPv6 cluster of world-leading companies. The North American IPv6 Summit will be held June 15 through 17 with 30 leading authorities, including Vint Cerf (who led the implementation of IPv4 for DARPA), the director of the DoD IPv6 Transition Office, and the head of Cybersecurity for the DHS. Preceding the conference, on June 14 there will be a tutorial and a security workshop, each a day long. The cost is $399 for the conference and $199 for the workshops.

Dual IPv6/v4 Stacks for Embedded, Networked Devices

Most of the contributors to the USIPv6 Summit present the value and relevancy of switching to an IPv6 network and Interpeak shares and endorse these many points. Our immediate attention here is towards those who actually build the systems used to deploy IPv6 and IPv4 networks. To the networking world these devices are called routers, switches, residential gateways, Integrated Access Devices and the like. To the engineers who design and build them, they're called embedded, networked devices.
Most users connected to the Internet sit behind a Windows or UNIX-based host computer with a screen, keyboard and mouse. Their focus is towards the application currently running and not how that web page just downloaded into the browser. But to the equipment manufacturer building the network systems connecting users to the Internet, they puzzle over how to add IPv6 to existing IPv4 devices. These equipment manufacturers are Interpeak customers.
Interpeak customers tend to ask these sorts of questions:
How do we fit both IPv4 and IPv6 in the limit memory space of the device?
What Internet applications and security protocols are supported over IPv6?
How is the transition from IPv4 to IPv6 handled?
Can we accelerate various parts of the TCP/IP processing?
Our device supports both voice and data, so how can your stack address the Quality of Service requirement?
The embedded, networked device designer has a number of challenges to address when building these devices.
Most embedded, networking devices differ from their corresponding end hosts in a number of ways: generally no monitor, keyboard or mouse; no rotating disk storage; a fixed amount of memory without user access for expansion; a limited set of controls and just several pages of web content for set up and monitoring. Many of these systems are operational moments after power up and their default settings prove useful to the average user. More complex systems need provisioning by system administrators when deployed in larger network topologies.
Referenced below is IPNET, Interpeak's dual IPv6/v4 stack. IPNET is an ANSI 'C' source code stack and is highly scalable to meet a range of embedded network requirements.
How does adding IPv6 to an IPv4 system impact memory requirements and processor utilization?
Both IPv4 and v6 share the same TCP and UDP transport layers so only the IP layers "double" up the code. By design, IPNET's dual stack architecture made extensive use of shared code and data structures where possible. The same sockets API layer is used with the addition of IPv6 extensions for the larger data structures. In some configurations of the IPNET stack, IPv6 adds just 30% more code over that of an IPv4-only configuration.
What Internet applications and security protocols are supported over IPv6?
Many of the familiar networking applications, such as telnet, ftp, dns, have supported IPv4 for years and recent extensions have been defined to run these over IPv6. Interpeak's applications use the extended address and protocol formats of IPv6, enabling IPNET applications to determine which IP version to use for outbound traffic by testing the remote destination node's IP version.
Protocols such as IPSec were defined along side of IPv6 and work fine, but what about protocols such as SSH, SSL and SNMPv3? From Interpeak, they are configured for IPv6 and adapt to the correct version of IP. Even Interpeak's Firewall can filter on either IP versions, enabling stateful firewalling, using the standard IP Filter rules.
How is the transition from IPv4 to IPv6 handled?
Several methods are defined for inter-working and transitioning from IPv4 to IPv6. These include: dual IPv6/v4 stacks, configured tunnels (IPv6 packets inside IPv4 packets), automatic tunnels (IPv6 packets with IPv4 addresses) and IPv6 addresses with embedded IPv4 addresses.
A dual stack implementation is one of the more complete solutions, if available, for it ensures the greatest possible level of interoperability. Applications can distinguish between v4 or v6 destinations and set up for the correct outbound IP stack. Tunneling IPv6 packets within IPv4 permits islands of IPv6 hosts/networks to exist while keeping IPv4 backbone in place. Still other techniques are under consideration as the industry gains IPv6 experience.
The method(s) employed is determined by network topology and what constraints must be observed.
Can we accelerate various parts of the TCP/IP processing?
Developers of IPv4 based systems understand the processor demands of IPv4. Less certain is the impact on processor utilization with IPv6, a mix of IPv6 with v4 or the inclusion of IPSec. Semiconductor manufacturers have anticipated this shift with new processors emerging which include hardware acceleration for networking stacks, in the areas of:
on chip buffer pool use
hardware IP checksum
hardware accelerated cryptographic algorithms
ahead-of-access caching of IP headers
hardware frame type detection
9KByte Gigabit Ethernet frames
IPNET is enhanced to support these features.

Our device supports both voice and data so how can your stack address the Quality of Service requirement?
Harking back to the early days of the Internet, "best-effects" was sufficient quality of service. Who expected streaming video and placing a telephone call over the Internet? Characteristically, the Internet found a way to support these new services, without disturbing the legacy services. IPNET permits the establishment of multiple prioritized output queues. Applications use the priority queue they need to meet the application's QoS requirement and by IP sending packets in high-priority queues first. Extensions to the sockets API are used by the application to assign the correct priority queue.
IPv6 QoS is set through the Traffic Class field and Type of Service (TOS) in IPv4.
For the embedded developer designing the next wave of networked devices, IPv6 solutions are available now. Through an extensive partner program for operating system environments, such as INTEGRITY, routing and network management, equipment manufacturers have a rich selection of solutions available.

IPv6: Real Benefits to Service Providers and Enterprises Alike

Most in the industry agree that IPv6 will be the underlying protocol for the next generation Internet. However, there is no general consensus on when the transition will happen. Indeed, the view held by many US IT managers is that the move to IPv6 is a service provider matter and has little near-term relevance in the enterprise. In this article we discuss why it is important to begin planning for IPv6 even here in the U.S. where IP address capacity is generally not perceived as a near-term problem.
Service Providers
Service providers around the globe are investing in network infrastructure capable of supporting bundled voice-video-data service offerings. This "triple play" concept (voice, video, and data) is gaining momentum as service providers attempt to differentiate themselves. These service providers are using IP as the fabric for this convergence. The widespread adoption of IP by so many independent operators and its use for so many communication services were not anticipated by the designers of the current generation of IP. It is not surprising that the IPv4 32-bit address space and its usage do not satisfy the super-sized demands of emerging networks.
As one example, consider the case of one of the largest service providers in the US that offers wireless and wired services. The service provider boasts a wireless subscriber base in excess of 36 million subscribers and a DSL subscriber base of 2.5 million. This service provider is very motivated to offer data services to its wireless subscriber base. Assuming that the provider actually decides to go forward with IPv4 addresses, and no growth in the subscriber base, the provider will have a huge demand for IPv4 addresses, that could very possibly be declined (or not completely fulfilled) by the American Registry for Internet Numbers (ARIN). With 36 million users, and assuming a very high Host-Density (HD) Ratio of 87%, that provider would require 32 x /8 address blocks. This is roughly one third of the remaining IPv4 address space. Consider how this situation is compounded when other providers begin offering similar services to the tens of millions of their subscribers.
Recent statistics gathered by the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) are shown below to help illustrate the scope of the problem.
Number of mobile subscribers exceeded 800 million in 2001
Number of mobile subscribers is predicted to hit 1.7 billion by 2010
Number of mobile Internet users is expected to surpass fixed users in 2006
Number of mobile Internet users is expected to hit 850 million by 2010
A recommended strategy for service providers is to include IPv6 in their planning today. New network equipment should be capable of both IPv4 and IPv6. This equipment should support wire-speed performance for both IPv4 and IPv6 applications. This will enable service providers to maintain high-performance services as they migrate from IPv4 to IPv6.
Enterprise Organizations
IP address conservation schemes including Network Address Translation (NAT) have softened the impact of the exponential growth in Internet usage, and extended the life of IPv4. However, there are new trends in enterprise networking that are changing the status quo. Enterprise networks are fast becoming the fabric for all communications. Wired and wireless communications of all kinds including video, voice and web-connected personal digital assistants are converging on the enterprise backbone.
This "everything over IP" enterprise convergence raises the question, "Does it makes sense to include IPv6 in enterprise network planning today?" To answer this, let us consider the following:
Most enterprise applications are isolated behind corporate NAT routers. The NAT function can interfere with a number of these applications especially when communicating outside of the protected zone. IT managers may find themselves facing concerns of whether they can successfully leverage the public Internet for IP-based communications with a supplier, partner or a reseller.
A common protocol is needed at the hand-off between the enterprise and service provider. Most service providers will migrate to IPv6 to scale their network and service offerings, accelerating the availability of IPv6 services. Service providers may not even permit the use of NAT. NAT can mask the source of a voice call preventing service providers from determining the phone that originated the call. This would impede the efforts of law enforcement, as well as impede the delivery of emergency 911 services.
IPv6 restores direct communications between endpoints, using unique and native device addresses, eliminating the need for NAT. This greatly simplifies the enterprise edge, removing the problems that often occur with NAT.
Another dynamic that will impact IPv6 deployment is the mandate by the US Department of Defense that all federal government networks must transition to IPv6 by 2008. This will accelerate the availability of IPv6 solutions from hardware and software vendors alike. Enterprise customers will be able to take advantage of the new generation equipment that is fast becoming available to meet the new requirements. Indeed, a number of vendors are already offering production-ready dual stack IPv4/IPv6 products. These IPv6-ready solutions can be used for IPv4 operation today with a transition to IPv6 being as easy as a command line configuration change. With these benefits in mind, it makes good business sense for IT managers to begin to include IPv6 in their networking roadmap.

IPv6 is no longer the R&D work of a select few in the industry; it offers real value and benefit to service providers and enterprise organizations alike. The IPv4 to IPv6 transition will not be a global cutover, but will be an orderly migration for service providers and enterprises. IPv6 will enable an entire new generation of services. It will simplify network design and operations in the important areas of address management, allocation and assignment. IPv6 is the future of networking and it will power our communications infrastructure for decades to come. It is incumbent on all networking organizations to learn more about and plan for IPv6 in their network evolution.

Making IPv6 A Reality Now

Reading May's edition of the 6Sense newsletter, I had the feeling a lot of people still try to justify why IPv6 will be accepted. A quick glance at the growth predictions doesn't leave a shadow of a doubt in my mind, IPv6 acceptance is gaining momentum and is becoming reality now. As Yurie Rich from Native6 underlined in his article last month, the question to be asked is no longer "why" but rather "how" to make IPv6 a reality.
From an operational point of view, three elements must be adapted to IPv6 in order to have a functional service: operating systems, networks and applications. These days, most modern operating systems like Windows XP, Linux, FreeBSD and Mac OS X already support IPv6 to a level or another. A growing number of existing applications are also being ported to IPv6, on a case by case basis. The bulk of the work remaining to be done is the deployment of IPv6 networks. Today's Internet is still IPv4 by an overwhelming proportion.
The methodology to be used to deploy IPv6 networks is subject to many debates. Most experts agree that the next wave of networking hardware must be IPv6 compliant and that some of the existing hardware may be upgraded through software. However the deployment of IPv6 is generally presented as a punctual event, such as "turning on the IPv6 network". This view does not reflect the fact some IPv4-only network equipment will be present in the network for a long time. Some pieces of equipment will never run IPv6 simply because they don't offer the required hardware resources. Others might never be upgraded because they are not actively administered, have in mind SOHO gateways for example.
With 5 years of experience dedicated to IPv6 deployment, Hexago offers a different perspective on implementing IPv6. We offer strategies to make IPv6 available now while ensuring a consistent and incremental transition to a fully native IPv6 network. This approach also ensures that legacy devices present in the network remain operational and useful.
Hexago developed its experience in IPv6 best practices by participating in initiatives like Moonv6 and by deploying Freenet6 (www.freenet6.net), a free service offering IPv6 connectivity. Projects that make use of IPv6 in real environments allow the discovery of issues never anticipated in theory. During events like Moonv6, best practices reflecting an operational reality can be put together and compared with existing standards.
From these experiences, deploying an IPv6 network relates to two fundamental questions: how to distribute address space and how to make the existing network support IPv6. Answers to these two questions are the fundamental blocks on which to build a solid base for a stable IPv6 network.
A first step is often to get a block of addresses, either the organization's own prefix or one delegated by a provider. Then comes the question of how to distribute this addressing space in the most flexible and practical way. Some documents such as RFC3531 give some clues on how to implement this in practice. During Moonv6, some common misconceptions related to addressing were also identified. For example, it's not obvious to most people why half of each IPv6 address cannot be used to create smaller networks. From the design of several IPv6 networks, Hexago was able to come up with methods ensuring few issues are encountered with IPv6 addressing, minimizing the need to renumber whole networks while they are running.
Early IPv6 implementers were wondering if IPv6 networks would expand from the core or from the edge. These days, we usually see networks being upgraded from the core to the fringes. However, IPv6 connectivity is not achieved unless the entire path to the edge devices is not IPv6. It is possible to have a fully functional IPv6 network today while incrementally upgrading pieces of equipment from the core by using coexistence mechanisms.
Coexistence mechanisms rely on tunneling techniques to bridge the gaps in IPv6 networks making them act as a single network. Among these mechanisms, only the tunnel broker architecture allows for the resources to be fully controlled by the use of authentication. Moreover, since this method does not rely on a single IPv6 prefix, it reduces the need to renumber as the native network grows.
During the transition to native IPv6, devices such as tunnel brokers are pushed toward the edge of the network, ensuring a smooth and incremental integration of new devices. As the network grows, the same mechanism can help support older IPv4 devices over IPv6 only networks.
This is only an example of how Hexago can help in building an IPv6 infrastructure in a smooth and progressive way. If you are looking to take advantage of IPv6 new opportunities, Hexago is your first step.

Characterizing IPv6 Application Performance

One of the concerns in implementing IPv6 is the impact to network performance when a variety of IPv6 applications are introduced. Consequently, a systematic and repeatable test methodology is required to assess such an impact. Ixia's IxChariot provides this capability by generating and measuring mixed IPv4/IPv6 stateful transport traffic across a variety of networks. With IxChariot, one has the ability to plan network capacity, identify network congestion, and evaluate the performance of new networking devices. This is just one of the topics that will be discussed at the upcoming IPv6 Santa Monica Summit.
Ixia has extensive expertise in traffic generation and analysis solutions, which are able to emulate routing protocols within a mixed IPv4 and IPv6 test environment. The IxANVL suite of tests, for example, verify network conformance to industry standards, and set the stage for more extensive and deeper testing methodologies. Collectively, Ixia's IxExplorer's (protocol server), IxANVL, and IxChariot can easily cover the needs of any test or network builder for Layers 1-7 of the OSI model.

An introduction of "Global IP Business Exchange 2004"

Broadband, IP-Phone, home electronics, IC tags and a variety of other Internet based products and services are penetrating the market in a lot of ways. Expectations of a breakthrough generating more business by using IP technology are the highest ever. In this IP world, IPv6 is the key technology which realizes this market shift and delivers more options to develop business models which can not be accomplished by the current IP structure. Technologies to form new business are ready and the next step is how those technologies are applied to business in variety of industries.
Government strategies are also moving forward to enhance a variety of usages of new IP technologies throughout the world. The Japanese Government is fully committed to enhancing a variety of Internet usage under their e-Japan2 program. The US Department of Defense announced a shift of their system to IPv6 by the year 2008. The Chinese Government is fully committed to deployment of an IPv6 based Internet infrastructure. EU is to use IPv6 for their e-government system.
There is no doubt that the revolution of the IP technology featuring IPv6 has changed our business opportunities in a lot of ways. The challenge of technology never stops and these continuous developments have created the market. It is the reason why IPv6 Promotion Council of Japan decided to shift our strategy of deployment. The former strategy was focus to increase the awareness of IPv6. However, the current strategy has moved to the market development. It has to focus not only for IT engineer, but prospective providers and buyers from various non-ITC business sectors.
On the basis of this background, we will hold "Global IP Business Exchange 2004" on November 16-18, 2004 at the central Tokyo area. This event will be integrated with exhibition and conference to gather and provide many opportunities of the real business relying on the new IP technology not only for buyers but ITC professionals and providers from the globe.
We hope this event will be the global market place where the emerging IP technology and solutions meet with ITC professionals and buyers building breakthrough to meet emerging technologies. It will offer in-depth exploration of the industries challenge as well as demonstrations of how the products, services and technologies fit into various industries. ITC professionals and buyers from all industries will be able to take advantage of this opportunity to gain practical knowledge for more intelligent decision making, and the tools to do their business better.

Short-Range Wireless 2004 Event

Short-Range Wireless 2004 ~ June 6-7 ~ Marriott Denver Tech Center in Denver, Colorado Co-located with Antenna Systems 2004, Short-Range Wireless 2004 is focused on the most recent advancements in short-range wireless technology for industrial, commercial and residential applications. This event serves technical and management professionals with end-user organizations involved in short-range wireless applications; device and electronics manufacturers; system developers and operators; integrators and service providers.
The sessions and discussions will aim to provide a comprehensive, objective view of product, service, regulatory and market developments in all applicable wireless device networking platforms, technologies and standards including Zigbee, 802.11, RFID, Bluetooth, M2M, wireless automation, UWB, IR, DECT and In-Building wireless.
For more information on the Short-Range Wireless event visit www.srw-magazine.com or contact Jeremy Martin at jeremym@infowebcom.com.

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Sunset Learning Institute Gears Up for IPv6 Summit
Sunset Learning’s Network Engineer/Instructor Team has a 13 year history of embracing, deploying and teaching cutting edge technologies to its clientele. Our team has been following the development of IPv6 through the early RFCs to its current implementations on Cisco router and Linux platforms. We are currently bringing a number of organizations up to speed on this technology through our Cisco course deliveries, including our very popular IP Version 6 Fundamentals and Building Scalable Cisco Internetworks courses. Stop by to meet SLI staff at our booth at the IPv6 Summit!